By A. Omholt (auth.)
The objective of this publication is to explain and speak about the aurora as an optical phenomenon, one that could be saw via the bare eye in addition to with extra delicate optical detectors. It keeps the culture of research ing that spectacular and resourceful play of nature, the northern lighting, noticeable and mentioned through the Greek philosphers as early because the 6th century B.c. this day the learn of the optical aurora is just one of some ways of buying information regarding a massive phenomenon: the ejection of plasma from the solar, the interplay of this plasma with the geomagnetic box and the injection of quickly debris into the earth's surroundings. of the optical aurora is justified via the for that reason, the separate therapy specific clinical procedure: detection and interpretation of electro magnetic radiation, nearly within the 1000-100000 A area, produc ed via interplay among the auroral debris and the earth's surroundings. different suggestions, corresponding to radio observations, X-ray observations, direct particle detections from rockets and satellites, reports of magnetic storms, and measurements of the magnetic box and plasma homes within the magnetosphere, are as vital or extra very important than the classical manner of learning the optical aurora. however, it was once felt necessary to regard the optical aurora in a separate e-book, possibly ordinarily simply because at the present time one writer can't grasp the complete topic with enough competence. This publication is therefore one quantity in a chain of books giving a extra entire photo of physics and chemistry in space.
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4". I I . ,. : hm(v 300 km 200 I 400 .... --:... 4 lu and 1/ as function of the height of the maximum intensity . • auroras in the dark. + sunlit auroras. (From data by Harang 1946 and Harang and Omholt 1960) Single auroral rays or bundles of rays lie significantly higher in the atmosphere. Harang and Omholt (1960) extended the earlier work by Harang (1946) to greater heights, using St0rmer's photographic material. The data are shown in Fig. 4. It is evident from St0rmer's own measurements (cf.
Sect. 5. The ratio between the total influx of energy by fast electrons and the resulting emission of A 3914 photons is then approximately 8 x 10 2 eV per photon. Using the A 4278 band, the corresponding ratio is slightly higher than 2 x 10 3 eV per photon. , 1970). Hence it is possible to determine the total energy flux carried into the atmosphere by the electrons by measuring the emission of ,,1,3914 or A 4278 photons from the aurora. Certain practical problems arise, however, because any optical measurement from the ground in effect involves integration along the line of sight.
4. It is evident from St0rmer's own measurements (cf. St0rmer 1955, Egeland and Omholt 1966, 1967) that single rays are particular in the sense that they show a much greater spread in height and generally lie higher than other forms. These data also show that there is a slight tendency for some auroral forms, notably homogeneous and rayed arcs, to decrease in height with Electron Energies Inferred from Height Distribution of Auroral Luminosity 35 increasing local time after about 0200 geomagnetic time, but the total shift is less than 10 km.
The Optical Aurora by A. Omholt (auth.)