By C.E (Sandy) Thomas
This e-book contains an in-depth research of the environmental and effort safety affects of exchanging the interior combustion engine car with a variety of sorts of electrical autos and exchanging fuel and diesel gas with replacement fuels together with electrical energy, hydrogen and biofuels. as well as an in depth “well-to-wheels” research of neighborhood pollution, greenhouse fuel emissions and oil intake for every replacement automobile, the publication estimates the marketplace penetration strength of every fuel/vehicle mixture to figure out the main most probably societal effect of every substitute automobile pathway. To aid the industry penetration estimates, the booklet analyses the most probably price of every substitute car in mass creation and the price of fitting the required gasoline infrastructure to aid each one alternative. The publication offers enough aspect to permit determination makers in governments and to decide on one of the replacement vehicle/fuel mixtures that would result in a really sustainable transportation system.
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Extra resources for Sustainable Transportation Options for the 21st Century and Beyond: A Comprehensive Comparison of Alternatives to the Internal Combustion Engine
Rather than using the 56 % estimate from Carnegie Mellon for those with access to off-street parking, we set a 75 % cap on PHEV sales, assuming that some PHEV drivers will be satisfied with charging their vehicles at work even though they do not have access to off-street parking at home.
11: (1) Diesel fuel HEV scenario; and (2) Natural gas HEV scenario. 1 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Scenario The Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scenario began in 1999 when Honda sold 17 of its small Insight HEVs. Sales of HEVs ramped up quickly when Toyota introduced over 5000 of their Prius HEVs in 2000. 3 % of all LDVs on the road). 1. 2 for the HEV scenario. E. 2 Gasoline Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Scenario The first commercial plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the Chevy Volt, was sold in 2011.
Several automakers have announced plans to begin producing FCEVs for sale in the 2015–2018 time period. Hyundai started FCEV production in 2014, and Toyota announced plans to begin producing FCEVs in the 2014–2015 time period. Mercedes, Ford, and Nissan announced a joint FCEV development plan in 2013 with a goal of starting commercial production of FCEVs by 2017 . 2 Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles While the main premise of this book is that electric motors must replace the venerable ICE if we are to meet our national security and environmental goals, we also consider two alternative fuels, natural gas, and diesel fuel running in ICVs, since some commentators are suggesting that these fuels might be useful to meet some of our societal objectives.
Sustainable Transportation Options for the 21st Century and Beyond: A Comprehensive Comparison of Alternatives to the Internal Combustion Engine by C.E (Sandy) Thomas