By Punit S. Bhojani
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Extra info for Smart Study Series:Obstetrics & Gynecology
Umbilical 3. Middle Cerebral (MCA) Uterine Artery Increased impedance of maternal uterine artery velocimetry (presence of diastolic notch) at 16–20 weeks is predictive of preeclampsia and IUGR. Umbilical Artery • A normal systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio indicates that the fetus is receiving adequate blood supply. • Umbilical artery Doppler is considered abnormal if the S/D ratio is above the 95th percentile for gestational age (rising S/D ratio is the earliest change in IUGR). • Absence of diastolic flow in umbilical artery is an ominous sign and IUFD can be expected within 7 days.
Polyhydramnios is commonly seen due to the following reasons: a. Transudation of fluid across the membranes b. Absence of swallowing c. Absent fetal pituitary (absence of ADH hormone implies that the baby passes more urine) • Postdatism is seen as fetal pituitary plays an important role in initiation of labor. • However preterm labor can also be there due to polyhydramnios. • Pseudoshoulder dystocia is seen as the soft head/face can slip through incompletely dilated cervix. Classically, fetuses with spina bifida have one or more of the following cranial signs on USG: 1.
Maximum permissible dose of radiation in pregnancy is: a. 05 rads b. 5 rads c. 5 rads d. Sterility The harmful fetal effects of ionizing radiation have been extensively studied for cell damage with resultant dysfunction of embryogenesis. The risk is greatest at 8–15 weeks, and larger doses are necessary at 16–25 weeks to cause an equivalent proportion of cases of mental retardation. Current evidence suggests that there is no increased risk of malformations, growth restriction, or abortion from a radiation dose of 5 rads or less.
Smart Study Series:Obstetrics & Gynecology by Punit S. Bhojani