By European Conference of Ministers of Tran
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Additional info for Railway Reform and Charges for the Use of Infrastructure
Mark ups The need for mark-ups on marginal social cost varies enormously within the countries examined. In Western Europe only a few countries recover more than 30% of total infrastructure costs from charges and none aim at 100%. 1). Various operational definitions of total costs are used by infrastructure managers but to derive cost recovery ratios for this report we define total costs as expenditure on operation of the network, maintenance, renewals, interest on debt and depreciation. (Differences in the treatment of historical debts from country to country complicate matters but we have not attempted to account for this).
While an appropriate system for reflecting the fixed and variable dimensions of train planning and operations management when there was only one operator on the network, the advantages are outweighed by the disadvantages as new freight operators are allowed to enter the market as it discriminates against small operators. The charge is to be modified from the beginning of 2006 with differentiation to be entirely linear. RAILWAY REFORM AND CHARGES FOR THE USE OF INFRASTRUCTURE – ISBN 92-821-0351-X – © ECMT 2005 37 2.
For instance some costs of providing for high speeds may be fixed as long as high speed trains are using the system, but avoidable if only slower trains are running. e. costs that are only avoidable if more than one type of service is withdrawn. For instance suppose that a particular double track route is used for local passenger, fast passenger and freight services, and suppose that it may only be reduced to one track if two of the three types of train are withdrawn. In this case the costs of maintaining a second track are joint, and will not enter into the avoidable cost of any single type of train.
Railway Reform and Charges for the Use of Infrastructure by European Conference of Ministers of Tran