New PDF release: Progress in aeronautical sciences. Volume 3

By Antonio Ferri, D. Küchemann, L. H. G. Sterne

ISBN-10: 1483199843

ISBN-13: 9781483199849

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Example text

7). For wings of small aspect ratio, Küchemann 1 7 has shown t h a t an adequate approximation to the induced incidence distribution is ob­ tained from oii(y) = coaio(2/), where ω is a factor (independent of y) which varies between 1 for very large aspect ratios and 2 for very small aspect ratios. The "effective incidence" a e of a wing section is defined by the rela­ tion (50) «(y) = ae(y)+ai(y); it is convenient to define also the sectional lift slope Φ) = CL(y)l«e(y). (51) Taking a e from Eq.

6. Calculation Methods Available for D e s i g n P u r p o s e s I n the preceding sections, it has been claimed t h a t there is an essen­ tial unity in the physical principles of swept wing design, which is hardly affected by whether the mainstream flow is subsonic or super­ sonic, provided t h a t the wing leading edges lie behind the Mach cone from the apex. However, when detailed design work has to be done, such theoretical methods as are available have to be used for the calcu­ lations, and the differences between available methods at subsonic and supersonic speeds are sometimes considerable.

The analysis of spanwise drag distributions in Fig. 8 shows t h a t both the "thickness" and "lift" terms contribute a local thrust force near the wing tip. On a wing with square cut tip, these thrust forces are generated by "peaky" pressure distributions with large suctions near the leading edge; in a viscous flow the adverse pressure gradient behind such a suction peak is very liable to provoke a boundary layer separation, which in turn reduces the section circulation. This causes a collapse of the suction peak and a substantial reduction in the local thrust force, leading to a correspond­ ing increase in the overall drag.

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Progress in aeronautical sciences. Volume 3 by Antonio Ferri, D. Küchemann, L. H. G. Sterne

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