By Roel van de Krol, Michael Grätzel
Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production describes the foundations and fabrics demanding situations for the conversion of sun into hydrogen via water splitting at a semiconducting electrode. Readers will locate an research of the cast nation homes and fabrics specifications for semiconducting photo-electrodes, an in depth description of the semiconductor/electrolyte interface, as well as the photo-electrochemical (PEC) phone. Experimental concepts to enquire either fabrics and PEC equipment functionality are defined, via an outline of the present cutting-edge in PEC fabrics and units, and combinatorial techniques in the direction of the improvement of latest fabrics. ultimately, the industrial and company views of PEC units are mentioned, and promising destiny instructions indicated.
Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production is a one-stop source for scientists, scholars and R&D practitioners beginning during this box, supplying either the theoretical heritage in addition to worthy useful details on photoelectrochemical dimension recommendations. specialists within the box enjoy the chapters on present cutting-edge materials/devices and destiny directions.
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Extra resources for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production
Small polaron) semiconducting metal oxides. It should be emphasized that the previous models only describe the current due to minority carriers. Under near-flatband conditions, the majority carriers start to contribute to the overall current. 65) are no longer useful. Another implicit assumption is the absence of mass transport limitations in the electrolyte, but this is rarely an issue in photoelectrochemistry due to the high electrolyte concentrations and modest efficiencies reported thus far.
18, and that it accurately reflects the thermodynamic ability of an n-type semiconductor to reduce water to hydrogen. Several techniques can be used to determine the flatband potential of a semiconductor. The most straightforward method is to measure the photocurrent onset potential, fonset. At potentials positive of fFB a depletion layer forms that enables the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, so one would expect a photocurrent. However, the actual potential that needs to be applied before a photocurrent is observed is often several tenths of a volt more positive than fFB.
The reduction of water is a much simpler two-electron process. Many n-type semiconductors can evolve hydrogen at small overpotentials and without a cocatalyst.
Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production by Roel van de Krol, Michael Grätzel