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The detection system of the spectrometer designates one axis to represent the positive absorption signal (defined by a receiver z z M0 θ x 90° pulse x y B1 B1 z x B1 y 180° pulse z y x B1 y 3 Strictly speaking, the sense of rotation is positive about the applied B1 field so that the vector will be driven towards the Ày axis. For clarity of presentation, the vector will always been shown as coming out of the page towards the þy axis for a pulse applied along the þx axis. 8. An rf pulse applies a torque to the bulk magnetisation vector and drives it towards the x–y plane from equilibrium.

26. The definition of the half-height linewidth of a resonance. ð2:13Þ For most spin-½ nuclei in small, rapidly tumbling molecules in low-viscosity solutions, it is field homogeneity that provides the dominant contribution to observed linewidths, and it is rarely possible to obtain genuine T2 measurements directly from these. However, nuclei with spin >½ (quadrupolar nuclei) may be relaxed very efficiently by interactions with local electric field gradients and so have broad lines and short T2s that can be determined directly from linewidths.

8). 3 The rate at which the vector moves is proportional to the strength of the rf field (
B " 1 ) and so the angle  through which the vector turns, colloquially known as the pulse flip or tip angle (but more formally as the nutation angle) will be dependent on the amplitude and duration of the pulse: ð2:5Þ  ¼ 360 " B1 tp degrees If the rf was turned off just as the vector reached the y axis, this would represent a 90° pulse, if it reached the Àz axis, it would be a 180° pulse, and so on. Returning to consider the individual magnetic moments that make up the bulk magnetisation vector for a moment, we see that the 90° pulse corresponds to equalising the populations of the a and b states, as there is now no net z-magnetisation.

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Organic Vegetable Gardening (PB1391)

by Joseph

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