Download PDF by World Bank Group: Non-Payment in the Electricity Sector in Eastern Europe and

By World Bank Group

ISBN-10: 0585163227

ISBN-13: 9780585163222

ISBN-10: 0821345427

ISBN-13: 9780821345429

"In Albania, shoppers with weapons stolen from the govt. threatened to shoot the application officers who tried to disconnect defaulting customers." this case and others much less dramatic, yet each piece as corrupt, irritated the software non-payment factor and driven it into the foreground. This examine experiences the non-payment challenge within the electrical energy region in jap Europe and the previous Soviet Union in the course of 1990-1997. as well as non-payment, the assessment additionally covers the matter of low funds collections and the choice in a few nations for using money substitutes akin to barters, offsets, and promissory notes. the target of the learn is to spot which rules and measures addressing the matter of non-payment within the electrical energy region labored in perform and which failed to. as a result, it contains tales of either luck and failure. it really is aimed toward equipping financial institution employees and selection makers with a collection of functional instruments that may be of use whilst the political will exists to take on the matter.

Show description

Read Online or Download Non-Payment in the Electricity Sector in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (World Bank Technical Paper, No. 423) PDF

Best electricity books

Download e-book for iPad: Time Domain Methods in Electrodynamics: A Tribute to by Peter Russer, Uwe Siart

This e-book involves contributions given in honor of Wolfgang J. R. Hoefer. house and time discretizing time area tools for electromagnetic full-wave simulation have emerged as key numerical equipment in computational electromagnetics. Time area equipment are flexible and will be utilized to the answer of quite a lot of electromagnetic box difficulties.

Download e-book for iPad: Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 10 by Frank Sabath, Eric L. Mokole

This ebook provides contributions of deep technical content material and excessive medical caliber within the parts of electromagnetic concept, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB structures, flooring penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power new release, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, objective detection and discrimination, propagation via dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-resolution strategies.

New PDF release: The Quantum Theory of Radiation

This specified publication provides a unified, in-depth learn of phenomena in photon-matter interactions over various many orders of strength. It presents a radical therapy of relativistic quantum electrodynamics from the quantum box theoretic strategy, including non-relativistic thought in either restricted and unconfined geometries.

New PDF release: Plasma Physics for Controlled Fusion

This new version provides the basic theoretical and analytical equipment had to comprehend the new fusion study of tokamak and trade techniques. the writer describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of hot and cold plasmas intimately. The ebook covers new very important issues for fusion reviews equivalent to plasma delivery by means of go with the flow turbulence, which rely on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows.

Extra resources for Non-Payment in the Electricity Sector in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (World Bank Technical Paper, No. 423)

Sample text

Georgia and Armenia are reversing such decentralization based on negative experience. Georgia, Albania and Armenia are consolidating their distribution enterprises to achieve economies of scale and to privatize them. Sector unbundling and privatization could generally help, but only if good corporate governance could be achieved and strong mechanisms to enforce contracts2 and competent and independent regulation are in place. In the absence of these, unbundling and half-hearted privatization could actually aggravate the problem as can be seen from the experience of Russia, Armenia, Albania and Georgia.

Power supply in Armenia was reduced merely to two hours per day in 1993, since Armgas, the gas utility could not settle its debt to Turkmenistan for gas purchases. 57 million. The energy sector debts thus exceeded 10 percent of the country's GDP. In Russia, 19 energos (out of the total 72) for which data was available, had tax arrears exceeding $ 790 million towards the end of 1997. Tax dues from Gazprom and other energy sector entities in Russia have reached significant dimensions, while the government's arrears to them were believed to be even greater.

In respect of SOEs providing such services as drinking water supply, sewerage etc. adopting tariffs which generate adequate revenues at least to pay for the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, which include the cost of power supply. Adjusting tariffs in a timely fashion to cost recovery levels (and to approach marginal supply costs) and to eliminate internal cross subsidies, enables utilities to improve quality of supply and thereby improve collections. This was illustrated by the experience of Bulgaria and Hungary.

Download PDF sample

Non-Payment in the Electricity Sector in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union (World Bank Technical Paper, No. 423) by World Bank Group


by Anthony
4.4

Rated 4.52 of 5 – based on 35 votes