By I. Idy-Peretti, J. Bittoun (auth.), Daniel Vanel M.D., Michael T. Mc Namara M.D., O. Arcangioli M.D., L. Arrive M.D., B. Aubert M.D., R. Bénacerraf Prof., J.-M. Bigot Prof., J. Bittoun M.D., S. Blangy M.D., A. Bonnin M.D., A. Bonnin Prof., J. Broussin Pro
As with the creation of x -ray computed tomography, a lot of the preliminary improvement of magnetic resonance functions tended to target the primary fearful approach. the improvement of magnetic resonance imaging functions to different organ structures similar to the chest, stomach, pelvis and extremities has lagged a bit of in the back of, expecting technical advancements, and a broader person base. The earlier years have noticeable a marked elevate in imaging functions during the physique, so much particularly the musculoskeletal process. it really is during this regard, that MRI of the physique is a welcome arrival as a textual content which describes either uncomplicated ideas of magnetic resonance ima ging and surveys the present prestige of magnetic resonance imaging functions through the physique. the quantity is concise, targeted, clinically orientated, and abun dantly illustrated. In each one organ method, the right technical strategy is mentioned, the traditional anatomic positive aspects are reviewed, and the variety of pathologic appearances that may be encountered are defined. The authors of the chapters supply a balanced evaluation of MR functions and describe either current obstacles and destiny capability of magnetic resonance imaging functions within the organ process described.
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Extra resources for MRI of the Body
A refocusing pulse in the direction opposite to that of Gs then makes it possible to obtain a FID signal of sufficient intensity. A phase encoding gradient Gp, with an intensity varying for each sequence, is applied as soon as the refocusing pulse ceases. This gradient is oriented in one direction of the section plane (the Oy axis for example). A 180 0 pulse is emitted at time t = Ti. This pulse can be selective if a Gs gradient is applied at the same time. Signal acquisition takes place at time t = TE.
The latter process will be dealt with in this section. The most usual way of improving contrast consists in altering the physical properties of the tissue by means of paramagnetic substances. The Physical basis 28 29 z M O,87M 21 frequency encoding gradient ... 28. 29. Echo gradient principle. The nuclear spins are fIrst progressively driven out of phase during time 1: by a gradient with given intensity. then brought back in phase by means of another fIeld gradient having the same intensity but in the opposite direction.
There is another phenomenon that reduces MR signal intensity : the nuclei remaining in the section studied are exposed to a magnetic field varying in time Ti as they are moving inside the section. When the 180 0 pulse is applied, they generate an echo with reduced amplitude because of the loss of spin phase. In a spin echo sequence with symetric echos, the second 180 0 pulse compensates for this effect and the amplitude of the second echo received is not reduced by dephasing : this is the "even echo rephasing" effect observed for slow laminar flow .
MRI of the Body by I. Idy-Peretti, J. Bittoun (auth.), Daniel Vanel M.D., Michael T. Mc Namara M.D., O. Arcangioli M.D., L. Arrive M.D., B. Aubert M.D., R. Bénacerraf Prof., J.-M. Bigot Prof., J. Bittoun M.D., S. Blangy M.D., A. Bonnin M.D., A. Bonnin Prof., J. Broussin Pro