By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Extra resources for Liver Cancer Risk from Internally-Deposited Radionuclides: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Summary There is a large uncertainty associated with the liver risk estimates in this Report, as is the case for all cancer risk estimates. The liver is more radiation sensitive to damage from internallydeposited alpha-emitting radioactive materials than previously estimated. This Report suggests a revision of the current risk estimate for liver cancer risks is needed. Animal studies support the validity of using Thorotrast® toxicity as an model for estimating the risk to liver due to exposures from other types of internally-deposited alpha-emitting radioactive materials.
Second, based on microdosimetry, if an alpha particle from exposure from Thorotrast® traverses a cell, there is a large amount of energy deposited in that cell. Thus, at low doses, the cellular dose is the same in any cell that is traversed by an alpha particle, while the major change as the dose is lowered is a decrease in the number of cells that are traversed by an alpha particle. , 1995). These cellular and molecular arguments were combined with empirical models that demonstrated that the data could be fit by linear relationships to justify the use of a linear model for estimation of cancer risk from the Thorotrast® data.
1996). d Gilbert et al. (1998). Estimated based on activity in the lung of <30 kBq kg–1. e Gilbert et al. (1998). Estimated based on calculated lung dose of <1 Gy. f Brooks et al. (1982). g Brooks et al. (1983). h Taylor et al. 2 LIVER CANCER RISK FROM ANIMAL DATA / 31 it possible to fit them to a single linear function. Gilbert et al. (1998) used two different approaches to estimate the risk for liver cancer from these combined data sets. In the first approach, risk was based on dogs with initial lung burdens (<30 kBq kg–1).
Liver Cancer Risk from Internally-Deposited Radionuclides: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements