By America's Energy Future Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council
The transportation region can't proceed on its present course: The volatility of oil costs threatens the U.S. economic climate, the big percentage of oil importation threatens U.S. power safety, and the large contribution of greenhouse gases threatens the surroundings. the advance of household resources of other transportation fuels with reduce greenhouse emissions is now a countrywide imperative.
Coal and biomass are in ample provide within the usa and will be switched over to liquid fuels that may be combusted in latest and destiny autos. Their ample provide makes them appealing applicants to supply non-oil-based liquid fuels to the U.S. transportation method. even if, there are vital questions about the commercial viability, carbon influence, and expertise prestige of those options.
Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass presents a picture of the aptitude expenditures of liquid fuels from biomass via biochemical conversion and from biomass and coal through thermochemical conversion. coverage makers, traders, leaders in undefined, the transportation area, and others with a priority for the surroundings, financial system, and effort defense will glance to this e-book as a roadmap to independence from overseas oil. With speedy motion and sustained attempt, substitute liquid fuels may be on hand within the 2020 time-frame, if or while the kingdom wishes them.
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The transportation region can't proceed on its present direction: The volatility of oil costs threatens the U. S. financial system, the massive percentage of oil importation threatens U. S. power defense, and the large contribution of greenhouse gases threatens the surroundings. the advance of family resources of other transportation fuels with reduce greenhouse emissions is now a countrywide critical.
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Extra resources for Liquid transportation fuels from coal and biomass : technological status, costs, and environmentals impacts
R&D is necessary to resolve issues that are identified during demonstration and to reduce costs of sustainable feedstock acquisition. Industrial experience shows that such reductions typically occur as processes go through multiple phases of implementation and expansion. 4 in Chapter 3) Biochemical conversion processes, as configured in cellulosic-ethanol plants, produce a stream of relatively pure CO2 from the fermenter that can be dried, compressed, and made ready for geologic storage or used in enhanced oil recovery with little additional cost.
Fuels produced by that plant cost about $95/bbl on a gasoline-equivalent basis without CCS, and CO2 atmospheric releases from plants with CCS are negative. S. energy strategy. 6. 6 shows the breakdown of all costs, including negative costs such as credit from electricity generation or from carbon uptake. The negative costs must be subtracted from the positive costs to obtain the actual costs. For example, the cost of BTL with CCS is $151/bbl– $37/bbl = $114/bbl. CO2 emission from corn-grain ethanol is slightly lower than that from gasoline.
2 in Chapter 4) Technologies for the indirect liquefaction of coal to transportation fuels are commercially deployable today; but without geologic storage of the CO2 produced in the conversion, greenhouse gas life-cycle emissions will be about twice those of petroleum-based fuels. With geologic storage of CO2, CTL transportation fuels could have greenhouse gas life-cycle emissions equivalent to those of equivalent petroleum-derived fuels. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Liquid transportation fuels from coal and biomass : technological status, costs, and environmentals impacts by America's Energy Future Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council