By Dr Ian Kay
Creation to animal body structure offers scholars with a radical, easy-to-understand advent to the foundations of animal body structure, with examples selected to demonstrate physiological techniques from around the animal nation. it really is essentially written
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A) Temporal summation: three subthreshold stimuli are delivered in rapid succession via input A. Threshold is reached and an action potential is generated. (b) Spatial summation: stimuli from inputs A and B are delivered simultaneously. Threshold is reached generating an action potential. Chapter 2 26 action potential. Summation of inhibitory stimuli causes the membrane potential to become increasingly more negative. 5 Organization of nervous systems Nervous systems can be simply described as aggregations or collections of neurons which are arranged to workin a coordinated function.
Intercalated discs represent regions of low electrical resistance between the individual muscle cells which constitute the heart. They are important in ensuring that action potentials are rapidly transmitted across the heart, so that all the muscle cells contract in unison and the heart beats synchronously. Smooth muscle is so called because it lacks the striations that give striated muscle its characteristic appearance. On the basis of its neural innervation, it is possible to distinguish two different types of smooth muscle, visceral, or single-unit smooth muscle, and multiunit smooth muscle.
The myofibrils which gives skeletal muscle its characteristic banded appearance. Actin and myosin overlap in the A band. The region where there is no overlap is called the H band. How, then, does contraction occur? The mechanism by which muscle contracts is known as the sliding filament model. With this model, the actin and myosin filaments slide past each other without physically shortening. 14. The organization of vertebrate skeletal muscle. A whole muscle is made of muscle fibers which are made up of myofibrils.
Introduction to Animal Physiology by Dr Ian Kay