By Seth C. Rasmussen
Glass creation is believed so far to ~2500 BC and had came upon a variety of makes use of through the peak of the Roman Empire. but the trendy view of glass-based chemical equipment (beakers, flasks, stills, etc.) used to be particularly restricted as a result of an absence of glass longevity less than swift temperature alterations and chemical assault. This “brief” supplies an outline of the heritage and chemistry of glass know-how from its origins in antiquity to its dramatic enlargement within the thirteenth century, concluding with its influence on society often, fairly its impact on chemical practices.
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Extra resources for How Glass Changed the World: The History and Chemistry of Glass from Antiquity to the 13th Century
The combination of heat and gravity would cause the disk to sag over the mold to give a bowl-shaped glass object (Fig. 4e). This technique was probably derived from the similar forming of a metal blank over a mandrel by hammering. The slumped glass bowls made by these methods were still individually made and would still have been exclusive items, produced for the social elite. By 400 BCE, large scale production of slumped objects was in evidence . The glass bowls were finished by grinding and polishing inside, to remove mold markings, and were often completed by the addition of a single horizontal ground band.
In order to limit some of the defects discussed above, glass could be melted separately and then poured into the mold from a pot or ladle, but even then it is very difficult to prevent the inclusion of bubbles. In addition, the molten glass never attains the mobility of molten metal [26, 27]. Thus, the casting of glass is a much slower process and involves the gradual feeding of glass into the mold while subjecting it to continuous heating over a long period . The lower mobility of glass also makes it so that it will not flow through small orifices and will not properly fill molds with intricate patterns, thus limiting this method to the production of larger objects of simple design .
The Romans are usually praised primarily for their practical skills rather than for their aesthetic achievements, but in the case of glass they excelled on both counts . For this reason, the first four centuries of the Common Era are often referred to as the First Golden Age of Glass . References 1. Cummings K (2002) A history of glassforming. A & C Black, London, pp 102–133 2. Kurkjian CR, Prindle WR (1998) Perspectives on the history of glass composition. J Am Ceram Soc 81:795–813 3. Shortland AJ, Tite MS (2000) Raw materials of glass from Amara and implications for the origins of Egyptian glass.
How Glass Changed the World: The History and Chemistry of Glass from Antiquity to the 13th Century by Seth C. Rasmussen