By Richard Cleminson
How did Spanish medical professionals conceptualize people believed to be a mixture of the female and male genders in the course of the interval of 1850–1960? Such folks disrupted gendered and sexual givens, and from a felony and clinical point of view, required exam and resolution in line with their real intercourse so that it will allow marriage, inheritance, and a “normal” social lifestyles. This quantity charts the altering scientific discourse at the “hermaphrodite” or “intersex” folks because the interrelationship among the physique, organic intercourse, and gender was once always reassessed and rewritten, making this the 1st significant research of Spanish hermaphroditism for the interval and a major contribution to the transforming into curiosity during this topic around the world.
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Extra info for Hermaphroditism, Medical Science and Sexual Identity in Spain, 1850-1960 (Iberian and Latin American Studies)
99 There is a historiographical question mark over the extent to which doctors designated the sex of their patients (and perhaps operated on them) without their consent and the extent to which medical doctors accepted that the person in question should live their life as the sex they felt most comfortable with. 100 Often, however, doctors dispensed with the patient’s voice in their medical reports. We hope, in contrast, that our account will make a contribution to making the voice of the patient heard as part of a process of empowerment in the face of the challenges provided by the early twenty-first century.
For more details of these systems of classification see Dreger (1998: 140–7). Dreger (1997: 46–66) puts some of the late nineteenth-century interest in hermaphroditism down to developments in anatomicopathological research. On these developments, see Ackerknecht (1967), Foucault (1989: 124–48), and, Laqueur (1990: 70–96). See Dreger (1998: 86). For some views on the medicalization of society, see Foucault (1989). See also the analysis by Rose (1994). Dreger (1998: 93 and 146–50). Cleminson and Vázquez García (2007).
The nun’s sex had been changed as a result of some strenuous work in the fields; this had meant a sudden increase in heat and the expulsion of a penis from her body. The exertion provoked ‘un gran dolor entre las dos ingles’ (a great pain in the crotch) which had caused a swelling. After three days, the swelling went down but ‘le había salido naturaleza de hombre’ (a man’s nature had come out). Seven days afterwards the transformation gathers pace: ‘le comenzaba a negregear el bozo y se le mudó la voz muy gruesa’ (the facial hair darkened and the voice became much deeper).
Hermaphroditism, Medical Science and Sexual Identity in Spain, 1850-1960 (Iberian and Latin American Studies) by Richard Cleminson