By Sandra Walklate
The 1st version of this ebook supplied a lucid and hugely acclaimed creation to gender matters in crime and legal justice, valuable to any realizing of crime and legal justice coverage and perform. This moment version has been up-to-date to take complete account of modern advancements, quite within the components of policing, crime prevention, restorative justice and laws in terms of sexual offenses and the character and effect of crime on girls — particularly the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The e-book is split into 3 major sections. the 1st considers alternative ways of theorizing approximately gender and the relative impression of this on considering crime and legal victimization; the second one considers a number of the facts relating to people’s gendered reviews of crime and legal victimization; and the 3rd considers how these operating in the legal justice process, and the guidelines which are installed position, paintings to maintain or switch these reviews of crime and legal victimization when it comes to gender.
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Extra resources for Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Second Edition
The question remains, of course, as to how these victimological presumptions have contributed towards a notion of a gendered victim. In one sense the process of understanding and identifying the influence of what counts as science and consequently what counts as scientific knowledge underpins the gendering of the victim in a very similar way to that which has occurred in gendering the criminal. These processes do not surface in expressions directly related to evolutionism within victimology but they do surface as having been influenced by the cultural legacy emanating from those ideas.
Indeed, the tendency for criminals to mark themselves with tattoos led Lombroso to argue that this was evidence of their closer relationship with ‘savages’. ) Given that the same assumptions associated with the evolutionary process also applied to females and children, the idea of the ‘atavistic criminal’ served a double helping of inadequacy to the female criminal. It is worth spending a little time on this in more detail. In general terms Victorian science viewed women as a ‘developmental anomaly’ (Eagle Russett, 1989: 74).
Summarising an earlier article by Millman (1975), Naffine (1987: 5) has this to say about this range of work: The overwhelming impression created by the sociological canon on deviance is that men alone are capable of standing up for their rights and defying convention, particularly when social rebellion is interpreted in terms of the ‘heroic’ qualities of bravery and loyalty to the oppressed. Deviant women, by contrast, are regarded as anaemic, as ‘politically uninspired’. While females are not completely absent from these studies – hence the oft-quoted statement from Cohen (1955), ‘boys collect stamps, and girls collect boys’ – they are studies which repeatedly focus on the greater criminal activity of the male and (implicitly) the greater conformity of the female.
Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Second Edition by Sandra Walklate