By C. Smith, E.J. Wood
Five. 2 Early background of the learn of glucose metabolism a hundred and one five. three The Embden-Meyerhof pathway 104 five. four organic importance of the glycolytic pathway 107 five. five Glycogen and different polysaccharides a hundred and ten five. 6 different monosaccharides one hundred fifteen five. 7 The pentose phosphate pathway 116 five. eight review 122 solutions to routines 123 Questions 123 6 Lipids: breakdown of fatty acids; brown fats; ruminant metabolism one hundred twenty five 6. 1 creation a hundred twenty five 6. 2 Triacylglycerols as power reserves one hundred twenty five 6. three Oxidation of fatty acids 126 6. four Thermogenesis 129 6. five Ruminant metabolism 133 6. 6 review 137 solutions to workouts 137 Questions 138 7 Amino acid catabolism 139 7. 1 creation 139 7. 2 Protein degradation 139 7. three removing of nitrogen from amino acids 141 7. four crucial amino acids a hundred and forty four 7. five Carbon chain catabolism 146 7. 6 Interconversion of amino acids and transamination a hundred and fifty 7. 7 Pathways for nitrogen excretion one hundred fifty five 7. eight Biosynthesis of urea 156 7. nine evaluate a hundred and sixty solutions to workouts one hundred sixty Questions a hundred and sixty solutions to questions 162 thesaurus 167 Index 169 vi Contents / / '--------------' Editors' Foreword This e-book is one in every of a chain of short fundamental·· texts for junior undergraduates and degree scholars in organic technology. The sequence, Molecular and mobilephone Biochemistry, covers the entire of modem biochemistry, integrating animal, plant and microbial subject matters.
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9. Ihe adenylate energy charge is useful in that it can be calculated from data of relative rather than absolute values of the cellular concentrations of AIP, ADPandAMP. 8 Adenylate energy charge Fig. 2. 13 The rate of ATP utilization and ATP generation in the cell plotted as a function of adenylate energy charge. At the point of intersection (XI. the rate of production of ATP is the same as that of its utilization. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLCI separation of a perchloric acid-soluble extract of hybridoma cells.
Electron transport Reverse electron transport Fig. 26 Electron transport in lithotropic sulphur bacteria. The points of entry of electrons from and S Are indicated. o H,S, s2ol- There are approximately 400 known species of insectivorous plants (also called carnivorous plants). These plants have specialized devices for trapping and digesting insects. carbohydrate from CO2, The tube worms are heterotrophs, living off the excretory products and dead cells of their autotrophic symbionts. Colourless sulphur bacteria are therefore an exception to the idea that all ecological productivity depends on photosynthesis.
Two main polypeptides. D1 and D2 , constitute the reaction centre. Each polypeptide has five hydrophobic sequences of amino acid residu es (represented by cylinders) embedded in the core of the chloroplast membrane. Linking hydrophilic portions are located on each side of the membrane. Chlorophyll P680 is attached to the middle of two of the hydrophobic sequences. S. Bendall. (1989) Plants Today. 2,188--92. The second part of the reaction involves the reduction of CO 2 in reactions of the Calvin cycle.
Energy in Biological Systems by C. Smith, E.J. Wood