By Paul Murdin
In a different collaboration, Nature Publishing workforce and Institute of Physics Publishing have released the main huge and finished reference paintings in astronomy and astrophysics in either print and on-line codecs. regrettably the print version is at the moment out of print, however the usually up to date internet is still lively and will be chanced on at www.ency-astro.com. This exact source covers the complete box of astronomy and astrophysics and this on-line model contains the entire textual content of over 2,750 articles, plus subtle seek and retrieval performance, hyperlinks to the first literature, and is often up-to-date with new fabric. An lively editorial workforce, headed through the Encyclopaedia's editor-in-chief, Maul Murdin, oversee the continuous commissioning, reviewing and loading of latest and revised content material. The Encyclopaedia's authority is guaranteed via editorial and advisory forums drawn from the world's best astronomers and astrophysicists. this primary type source could be an important resource of knowledge for undergraduates, graduate scholars, researchers and professional pros, in addition to for devoted amateurs, librarians and lay humans wishing to refer to the definitive astronomy and astrophysics reference paintings.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volumes 1-4
The UV continuum flux (open symbols; left vertical scale in erg s−1 cm−2 A−1 ) and the emission line intensities (here the sum of all the lines; dots; right vertical scale in erg s−1 cm−2 ) as a function of time for the AGN at the center of the galaxy NGC 5548. The delay of ∼15 d between the two light curves means that the lines are formed at a distance of ∼15 light d or 5 × 1016 cm. (From D Maoz 1997 Emission Lines in Active Galaxies: New Methods and Techniques. ASP Conf. Ser. ) The detailed variations in line intensity and profile provide the answer to the question which is critical to the determination of the mass, as to whether the clouds are gravitationally bound to the central black hole: The line profile variations do not show the systematic effect of one wing responding before the other that would be expected for radial flows: The blue wing would be observed to vary first in the case of outward flows and spherical winds, and the red wing would be observed to vary first in the case of spherical accretion1 .
The range of column densities in these absorbing systems is wide, NH ≈ 1013 –1021 cm−2 , so that metal features, Mg II λ 2798, C IV λ 1549 and Lyman limit breaks are observed in a subset. At high redshift, where only the brightest sources, mostly QSOs, are visible to us, the Lyman α forest provides our only view of the cold material and so is a very important window on the early universe for cosmological studies (see QUASISTELLAR OBJECTS: INTERVENING ABSORPTION LINES). The most interesting class of absorbers, in terms of QSO studies, is that of associated–intrinsic absorbers.
In general, there are more data and of higher quality available for Seyfert 1s than for quasars. The reason is that they are numerous and quite a few are located within 100 Mpc of the Earth and are easily observable with the current instrumentation. In contrast, quasars are rare and even the closest ones are at such large distances from us that the flux received on Earth is much less than that from Seyfert 1s (there is one exception, 3C 273). In summary, the body of knowledge of AGN variability is dominated by the observations of Seyfert 1s, which have led to physical models which satisfactorily explain the observed phenomena.
Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volumes 1-4 by Paul Murdin