By Glenn Dryhurst
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2-42A or 2-42B. Generally, the power supply voltages for operational amplifiers (±15 V for solid-state amplifiers) are very stable, so that a variable D C voltage supply may be derived from the supply using just a single operational amplifier (Fig. 2-42A). Alternatively, a standard Weston cell may be employed (Fig. 2-42B). All o f the electrolysis current flows between the counterelectrode and working electrode. The current flowing is measured by the current amplifier ( C F ) , which simply gives a voltage proportional to the current.
39 and 40 to derive E q . 4 1 . 303A: (42) Thus, by recording the electrolysis current at known time intervals and plotting log it against time, from Eq. 39 a straight line can be expected having a slope o f —k and an intercept log i0 at t = 0. By substituting the values o f / 0 and h into Eq. 4 2 , the value of ß t o t a i m coulombs can be calculated. I f the initial concentration of electroactive species is known, the number o f electrons η involved in the electrode reaction can be calculated from Qtoui=nFN (43) where Ν is the number o f moles o f electroactive species initially present in the solution, and F i s the faraday (96,500 C ) .
But f' ι c ^^ vC / / TIME F I G . 2-35. Operational amplifier as an integrator. For label definitions, see text. 54 2 Theory and Instrumentation SV V X / c ^ - Gi F I G . 2-36. ο I I _ J^^ e 0 = - R f C dej Operational amplifier as a differentiator. For label definitions, see text. Q=( ifdt =f hdt (63) Therefore, e o= ^ f ' i i A C Jο (64) and since ei=hRi (65) then K[L J ο The negative sign appears because o f the inverting nature o f the amplifier input. Accordingly, if a constant D C voltage is applied as the amplifier input signal, a D C ramp output signal voltage is produced, as shown in Fig.
Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules by Glenn Dryhurst