New PDF release: Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities : the 18-23-week scan

By G Pilu; K H Nicolaides

ISBN-10: 1850704929

ISBN-13: 9781850704928

content material: advent normal perspectives for exam of the Fetus valuable worried procedure general Sonograpic Anatomy Neural Tube Defects Hydrocephalus and Ventriculomegaly Holoprosenceophaly Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Dandy-Walker complicated Microcephaly Megalencephaly harmful Cerebral Lesions Choroid Plexus Cysts Vein of Galen Aneurysm Face general Sonographic Anatomy Orbital Defects Facial Cleft Micrognathia Cardiovascular process, P. Jeanty and G. Pilu evaluation of the Fetal middle Atrial Septal Defects Ventricular Septal Defects Atrioventicular Septal Defects Cardiosplenic Syndromes Univentricular middle Aortic Stenosis Coarctation and Tubular Hypoplasia of the Aorta Interrupted Aortic Arch Hypoplastic Left center Syndrome Pulmonary Stenosis and Pulmonary Artesia Conotruncal Malformations Transposition of the nice Arteries Double-Outlet correct Ventricle Tetralogy of Fallot Truncus Arteriosus Communis Ebstein's Anomaly and Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia Echogenic Foci Cardiac Dysrhythmias: untimely Contractions Cardiac Dysrhythmias: Tachyarrhymthias Cardiac Dysrhythmias: entire Atrioventricular Block Pulmonary Abnormalities Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of the Lung Diaphragmatic Hernia Pleural Effusions Sequestration of the Lungs Anterior stomach Wall basic Sonographic Anatomy Exomphalos Gastroschisis physique Stalk Anomaly Bladder Exstrophy and Cloacal Exstrophy Gastrointestinal Tract basic Sonographic Anatomy Esophageal Atresia Duodenal Atresia Intestinal Obstruction Hirschsprung's ailment Meconium Peritonitis Hepatosplenomegaly Hepatic Calcifications stomach Cysts Kidneys and Urinary Tract basic Sonographic Anatomy Renal Agnesis childish Polycystic Kidney disorder (Potter variety I) Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney disorder (Potter variety II) Potter style III Renal Dysplasia Obstructive Uropathies Skeleton, G. Pilu and R. Romero general Sonographic Anatomy Skeletal Anomalies Osteochondrodysplasias Limb Deficiency or Congenital Amputations break up Hand and Foot Syndrome Clubhands Polydactyly Fetal Akinesia Deformation series (FADS) good points of Chromosomal Defects, ok. Nicolaides and R. Snijders Phenotypic Expression danger for Chromosomal Defects Fetal Tumors, I. Meizner creation Intracranial Tumors Tumors of the Face and Neck Tumors of the Thorax Tumors of the stomach and Retroperitoneum Tumors of the outside Hydrops Fetalis Small for Gestational Age Abnormalities of the amniotic fluid quantity Appendix I: danger of significant trisomies with regards to maternal age and gestation Appendix II: Antenatal sonographic findings in skeletal dysplasias Appendix III: Fetal biometry at 14-40 weeks of gestation sites delivering important info for prenatal prognosis Index.

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Sample text

A useful h in t is the dem o n stratio n th at the tricuspid and m itral valves attach at th e same level at th e crest o f the septum . T his apical displacem ent o f th e m itral valve elongates th e left ven tricu lar ou tflo w tract. T h e atrial septal defect is o f the ostium p rim u m type (since th e septum secundum is n o t affected) and thus is close to the crest o f th e in terv en tricu lar septum . Prognosis A trio v en tricu lar septal defects w ill usually be e n c o u n te re d eith er in fetuses w ith chrom osom al aberrations (50% o f cases are associated w ith aneuploidy, 60% being tn so m y 21, 25% trisom y 18) o r in fetuses w ith cardiosplenic syndrom es.

CARDIAC D Y SR H Y TH M IA S: COMPLETE A T R IO V EN TR IC U LA R BLOCK In com plete atrioventricular block, the atria beat at th eir o w n rh y th m , and n o n e o f th eir im pulses is transm itted to th e ventricles. T h e ventricles have a slow rate (40—70 b eats/m in ). In 50% o f cases, structural anom alies are present (m ostly left isom erism and co rrected transposition o f the great arteries). In the rem aining cases, the co n d itio n is alm ost exclusively caused by the presence o f m aternal autoantibodies, a n ti-R o (SS-a) o r anti-L a (SS-B).

A n atrial rate greater than 300 b e a ts/m in w ith an atrioventricular response o f 1 : 2 o r less indicates atnal flutter. A very fast atrial rate w ith irregular ventricular response is indicative o f atrial fibrillation. A v en tricu lar rate in the range o f 200 b ea ts/m in w ith a n o rm al atrial rate is suggestive o f v en tricu lar tachycardia. Prognosis Sustained tachycardia is associated w ith suboptim al ventricular filling and decreased cardiac o u tp u t. T hese result in atrial overload and congestive failure.

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Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities : the 18-23-week scan by G Pilu; K H Nicolaides

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