Download PDF by Joseph Rotblat: Confronting the Challenges of the 21st Century

By Joseph Rotblat

ISBN-10: 9810247737

ISBN-13: 9789810247737

ISBN-10: 9812799648

ISBN-13: 9789812799647

In September 1999, scientists and students from worldwide, all for decreasing the risk of armed clash and looking cooperative strategies to international difficulties, met below the auspices of the Pugwash meetings, the Nobel-Prize-winning association. The court cases care for a huge diversity of matters, together with: a nuclear-weapon-free global; rising safeguard threats; improvement; surroundings; and foreign governance.

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This could be achieved by mixing weapon-grade Uranium with natural Uranium. The resulting low-enriched Uranium (LEU) - a valuable commercial commodity - could be stored for use as a non-explosive source of energy. Whereas enrichment of Uranium is a difficult and costly job requiring sophisticated technologies, deenrichment is easy and relatively inexpensive. In addition to serving the cause of nuclear nonproliferation among states, it would greatly reduce the risks of nuclear terrorism. For no great competence is required to manufacture a primitive nuclear device having an explosive yield in the kiloton range, provided an adequate quantity - a few tens or several tens of kilograms of HEU (depending on the sophistication of the device) - is available.

Given these circumstances, it is hardly surprising that up to 90 per cent of the world's deaths in conflict since 1992 have been civilians killed by small arms. In addition to the tragic loss of human lives, the proliferation of arms undermines economic development. It was also argued that light weapons are not an independent variable but a dependent variable of certain political and socio-economic circumstances that lead to violence. In this regard, it was noted that the presence of large number of arms in countries where social cohesiveness is high, such as Finland in the late 1940s, did not result in serious consequences for the Finnish state or people.

29 Denuclearization of Korea - a measure indispensable for the security of the Northeast Asian region - will require profound political and economic transformations in the northern part of the Peninsula. Denuclearization of the area around the Taiwan Strait - as proposed by some - seems unlikely for obvious political reasons, but its proponents hope to bring it about some time in the future. A nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East would be particularly desirable, because it would involve the denuclearization of a non-avowed nuclear weapon state; its establishment will depend on the development of the ongoing peace process in the region.

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Confronting the Challenges of the 21st Century by Joseph Rotblat

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