By J. Shore
Concentrates at the chemical features of dyes and pigments, with emphasis on makes an attempt to interpret their colouring and fastness houses by way of the basic structural good points of colorant molecules.
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Based on theoretical considerations of dye structure and application properties, a range of compatible dyes that give deep colours of good fastness on leather has been developed . For the reasons already outlined, only selected dyebath wastes from leather dyeing will be suitable for recycling (providing mordant dyes are absent). Bioelimination of the disazo direct dyes and monoazo metal-complex dyes will be relatively high. Flocculation using cationic precipitants should be an effective way of dealing with the residual dyes remaining in leather dyeing effluents.
As by far the largest chemical class, it is perhaps not surprising that azo dyes have attracted most attention with regard to carcinogenicity. Some structure-carcinogenicity trends for azo dyes and their metabolites have been discussed with a view to the prediction of dye carcinogenicity [84,85]. If an azo dye is carcinogenic and is relatively stable in the hydroxyazo tautomeric form, the dye itself is likely to be the active carcinogen. In contrast, those dyes that exist predominantly in the ketohydrazone form are more readily reduced to metabolites.
The natural carotenoid dyes are of outstanding importance for colouring edible fats and oils. pmd EU No Colorant CI Food CI Acid Chemical class E102 E104 E110 E122 E123 E124 E127 E131 E132 E142 E151 Tartrazine Quinoline Yellow Sunset Yellow Carmoisine Amaranth Ponceau 4R Erythrosine Patent Blue V Indigo Carmine Green S Black PN Yellow 4 Yellow 13 Yellow 3 Red 3 Red 9 Red 7 Red 14 Blue 5 Blue 1 Green 4 Black 1 Yellow 23 Yellow 3 Monoazo Quinophthalone Monoazo Monoazo Monoazo Monoazo Xanthene Triarylmethane Indigoid Triarylmethane Disazo 29 Red 14 Red 27 Red 18 Red 51 Blue 1 Blue 74 Green 50 15/11/02, 14:41 30 CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL PROPERTIES OF COLORANTS fungi, insects, bacteria, feathers and egg yolks .
Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties: Colorants by J. Shore