By Robert Noyes
A few of the more challenging environmental difficulties dealing with the dept of safety (DOD) contain (1) chemical guns destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. it truly is attainable that $50 to $100 billion may be spent by means of DOD for those 3 courses, providing strange possibilities for environmental engineering and similar enterprises. army installations are just like small towns by way of inhabitants, commercial actions, and a few varieties of infected websites. besides the fact that, a few conceal a space greater than a small country. DOD has operated commercial amenities on its installations for a number of many years that experience generated, saved, recycled, or disposed of unsafe wastes. lots of those actions have infected the close by soil and groundwater. to review and freshen up infected websites, DOD proven the deploy recovery software (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was once made a part of the protection Environmental recovery software. The Secretary of security delegated cleanup accountability to the military, army, the Air strength, and the safeguard Logistics corporation (DLA). Cleanup activities tend to be entire less than agreement with inner most agencies, that are monitored via the providers. so much cleanup activities are funded during the protection Environmental recovery Account (DERA) and the bottom Realignment and Closure Account. Congress tested DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive infected websites on DOD installations. The expertise to scrub up the traditional harmful wastes on DOD websites are just like these applied for commercial websites, and well-documented via this writer. although, there are 3 DOD courses that require the usage of slightly strange or diversified applied sciences that experience no longer been besides documented. those 3 courses are: 1. Chemical guns destruction 2. Remediation of explosives infected soils and lagoons three. Unexploded ordnance detection, clearance, and extraction This booklet discusses the present and strength therapy applied sciences fascinated about those 3 courses.
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Additional info for Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste Unexploded Ordinance
Access is strictly controlled by security forces, intrusion detection devices, barricades, and perimeter lighting. 2 COSTS The most recent estimated cost to dispose of the chemical weapons stockpile is $12 billion. This is in addition to the approximately $18 billion to dispose of the chemical weapons non-stockpile material. (as discussed in Chapter 6). 5 billion has been expended. Currently, the total program life-cycle cost is projected to be $12 billion through 2004. The Army has testified that program costs could continue to rise over the life of the program for any of the following possible reasons: design changes, permit delays, more stringent regulatory requirements imposed by the states or federal government, schedule extensions, and additional costs of plant closures and dismantling.
Similarly, JACADS' disposal rates during full-scale operations have been less than expected. As a result, destruction will take longer than planned. The Army conducted four operational testing campaigns to demonstrate that chemical weapons could be incinerated within Environmental Protection Agency standards and to assess the reliability of the mechanical process. The testing was originally scheduled to take 16 months, but it was extended to 31 months when the Army experienced difficulties such as a detonation inside one of the furnaces, jamming of a munitions conveyor, and problems accessing agent from projectiles.
In an attempt to conceal a CW production effort, a proliferant country might also resort to less well-known production processes that had earlier been discarded because of their high cost, inefficiency, hazards, or need for unusual precursors or catalysts. A sulfur-mustard production plant with air-handling capabilities might cost between $5 and $10 million to build. In contrast, a more sophisticated G-agent production facility would cost between $30 and $50 million. Since waste-handling facilities would account for more than 50% of the cost of a G-agent plant, a "no-frills" production facility that did away with waste handling might cost about $20 million.
Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste Unexploded Ordinance by Robert Noyes