By Eugene Toy, Lawrence Ross, Cristo Papasakelariou, Hang Zhang
Research ANATOMY within the CONTEXT OF REAL-LIFE sufferers and get ready FOR THE forums
Experience with scientific situations is imperative to excelling at the USMLE Step 1 and shelf tests, and finally to delivering sufferers with useful medical care. Case records: Anatomy presents fifty eight true-to-life circumstances that illustrate crucial suggestions during this box. every one case comprises an easy-tounderstand dialogue correlated to crucial simple technology ideas, definitions of key phrases, anatomy pearls, and USMLE-style evaluate questions.
With Case records, you'll examine rather than memorize.
• examine from fifty eight high-yield circumstances, every one with board-style questions and key-point pearls
• grasp advanced innovations via transparent and concise discussions
• perform with evaluation inquiries to strengthen learning
• Polish your method of scientific problem-solving
• excellent for clinical, dental, and health care professional assistant scholars getting ready for gross anatomy path tests and the Boards
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Additional info for Case Files Anatomy (3rd Edition)
Drought is one of the major threats to plants, as water deﬁcit affects the plant–water relations at all levels from molecular, cellular, and organ to the whole plant (Li et al. 2014a; Muscolo et al. 2015). Drought depresses plant growth and development, which results in the production of smaller organs, and hampered ﬂower production and grain ﬁlling. Following drought, stomata close progressively with a parallel decline in net photosynthesis and water-use efﬁciency (Farooq et al. 2009a, b). Stomatal conductance is controlled not only by soil water condition, but by a complex interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors (Liu et al.
Compared to the control, 88 and 52 unigenes were expressed only in drought-stressed root and leaf, respectively, while nine unigenes were expressed in both the tissues (Wang et al. 2012a). Transcriptome analyses using transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean plants showed that the downstream genes of GmDREB1B;1 included numerous soybean-speciﬁc stress-inducible genes that encode an ABA receptor family protein, GmPYL21, and translation-related genes, such as ribosomal proteins, indicating that soybean DREB1/CBF-type transcription factors function in drought stress-responsive gene expression (Kidokoro et al.
2015b; Wang et al. 2014c, 2015). Interestingly, Arabidopsis plants subjected to a daily dehydration cycle display physiological and transcriptional stress memory: previously stressed plants showed partially closed stomata during a watered recovery period, facilitating water conservation during a subsequent dehydration stress (Virlouvet and Fromm 2015). Many experiments have proven that the short- and long-term drought stress memory exist in plants (Hu et al. 2015a, b; Berry and Dean 2015; Avramova 2015; 2 Drought Stress Memory and Drought Stress Tolerance in Plants: Biochemical… 33 Fig.
Case Files Anatomy (3rd Edition) by Eugene Toy, Lawrence Ross, Cristo Papasakelariou, Hang Zhang