By Ashley Moffett, Charlie Loke, Anne McLaren
This can be the 1st committed, in-depth account of trophoblast: the tissue derived from the fertilized egg that nourishes and protects the constructing fetus. The cells of the trophoblast have many exact features, and show nice variability throughout assorted species. It has a desirable position within the improvement of the placenta and as a regulator in the course of early progress of the embryo. those facets are all absolutely lined in addition to reports on why it's not rejected via the mum as 'foreign' tissue. This quantity offers an up to date precis of the country of present wisdom and provides a few glimpses as to destiny improvement at the clinical and medical entrance.
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Additional resources for Biology and pathology of trophoblast
Several of the Wnt knockouts and one of the Wnt receptor knockouts have placental phenotypes, but this is much later than could be interpreted as being a trophoblast stem cell phenotype. If anything, our hypothesis would be that Wnts might be the allantoic factor that promotes syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. I’d like to comment about BMP4 and human trophoblast. Those cells are odd in the sense that they make HCG, but they never proliferate. Thinking of using BMP to make a human TS line is a little simplistic.
Natl. Acad. Sci. , 101, 6027–32. Rathjen, J. D. (2001). Mouse ES cells: experimental exploitation of pluripotent differentiation potential. Curr. Opin. Genet. , 11, 587–94. Rossant, J. & Ofer, L. (1977). Properties of extra-embryonic ectoderm isolated from postimplantation mouse embryos. J. Embryol. Exp. , 39, 183–94. Rossant, J. & Tamura-Lis, W. (1981). Effect of culture conditions on diploid to giant-cell transformation in postimplantation mouse trophoblast. J. Embryol. Exp. , 62, 217–27. H. et al.
25 Pluripotency and extraembryonic differentiation Inhibitory model of pluripotency What are the molecular determinants of ES cell pluripotency? Although it is not possible to answer this question at the moment, we are in a position to construct a working model. Since Oct4 was discovered, it was considered a pluripotency factor and efforts were made to identify genes that it positively regulates (Saijoh et al. 1996, Du et al. 2001). It now appears that Oct4 may be mediating a significant proportion of its effects by transcriptional repression, not activation.
Biology and pathology of trophoblast by Ashley Moffett, Charlie Loke, Anne McLaren