By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
This record examines the literature on organic results of publicity to modulated radiofrequency (RF) power to figure out even if current publicity criteria and instructions must be changed additional to take modulation into consideration. Modulation happens in a large choice of kinds really good for radar, instant communications, broadcast communications, and commercial techniques with the end result that many waveforms, pulse widths, spectral houses, and temporal styles desire attention. In pulse modulation the RF power is speedily switched off and on, while amplitude modulation produces a always altering point of RF strength. Frequency-modulated RF strength has sign amplitudes that stay basically consistent, yet range in frequency inside a few narrowly prescribed diversity and extra heavily resembles nonmodulated RF strength than pulsed or amplitude modulated RF fields. For radar, pulses commonly have intervals measured in fractions of a microsecond to some microseconds. durations among pulses (or pulse teams) are significantly longer leading to low responsibility cycle, that's, RF power is on for a small fraction of time in the course of every one interval. yet pulsed signs used for communications structures may have intervals within the diversity of milliseconds, greater responsibility cycles, and extra modulation beneficial properties. really good army structures represent a subcategory with very severe, short pulses.
desk of Contents
2. In vitro experiences
three. In vivo stories
four. Human reviews
five. Epidemiological reviews
6. Biophysical concerns
7. dialogue and Conclusions
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Additional resources for Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields
Effects of weak amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex,” Bioelectromagnetics 3, 295–307. A. and GRIGOR’EV, IuG. (1996). “Effects of electromagnetic radiation of various modes on heart activity (in experiments) (in Russian),” Radiat. Biol. Radioecol. 36, 691–699. , GAMBRILL, C. , JR. (1991). “Immediate post-exposure effects of high-peak-power microwave pulses on operant behavior of Wistar rats,” Bioelectromagnetics 12, 183–195. , ROCHE, J. and LOFTUS, J.
S. Navy personnel No increase in cancer risk Garland et al. S. Air Force personnel Small, but statistically significant increase in brain tumors among exposed group Grayson (1996) Not clear Broadcast towers Broadcast towers in Australia; maximum power density of 80 µW m–2 Children living within 4 km of towers had 50% greater chance of leukemia incidence. Adult and children combined risk greater by 25% Hocking et al. (1996) Leukemia rates No Broadcast towers Broadcast towers in Great Britain No association with childhood leukemia, weak association with adult leukemia Dolk et al.
Alterations in protein kinase activity following exposure of cultured human lymphocytes to modulated microwave fields,” Bioelectromagnetics 5, 341–351. , PIEPER, S. R. (1988). “Increased ornithine decarboxylase activity in cultured cells exposed to low energy modulated microwave fields and phorbol ester tumor promoters,” Cancer Res. 48, 4222–4226. , ZANFORLIN, L. V. (1986). “Microwave effects on isolated chick embryo hearts,” Bioelectromagnetics 7, 359–367. L. R. (1997). 55 MHz modulated radiofrequency field,” Bioelectromagnetics 18, 237–243.
Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements