By S. Grimnes, O. G. Martinsen
Even though the e-book is meant for individuals within the organic sciences it's very not going to be of a lot aid to these in clinical and scientific perform hoping to appreciate larger the purposes and interpretation of bioimpedance.
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Extra info for Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics (Biomedical Engineering)
In the case of a cation in water, the negative (oxygen) end of the neighbouring water molecules will be oriented towards the ion, and a sheath of oriented water molecules will be formed around the cation. This sheath is called the primary hydration sphere. The water molecules in the primary hydration sphere will attract other water molecules in a secondary hydration sphere, which will not be as strongly bound as the primary sphere. Several spheres may likewise be involved until at a certain distance the behaviour of the water molecules will no longer be influenced by the ion.
A change in the charge distribution near the electrode surface results in a changed potential function, and consequently a changed half-cell potential. A polarisable electrode therefore implies a current-induced change of charge distribution near the electrode surface, and a changed half-cell potential. The liquid junction equilibrium dc potential Between two dissimilar electrolyte solutions a potential difference is created just as between a metal and an electrolytic solution. By Brownian motion the ions randomly walk with a velocity proportional to the Boltzmann factor k T.
However, the concept of local energy wells can also be adapted to ionic conduction. Debye (1929) proposed a model in which an ion may be translocated between a pair of neighbouring energy Intrinsic Conduction : band 9O ~ - . . . 9 9 band Electron energy o O'O' 9 p-Type ~ Oo' 9 9 Donor level Forbidden gap Valence 9 nType -- o. ~.... 5. Electronic semiconductivity. Energy levels in a semiconductor without (left) and with impurities. Local impurities create local energy levels (energy wells) as local reservoirs in the forbidden energy gap.
Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics (Biomedical Engineering) by S. Grimnes, O. G. Martinsen