By Professor Chihiro Hamaguchi (auth.)
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L = Im 2 /Vs = 104 cm 2 /Vs is required. A high magnetic field is achieved by using a superconducting solenoid and a high angular frequency electromagnetic field (w = wc ) by using microwave or infrared light. When we use an electromagnet, a field of 1 T is achieved and thus cyclotron resonance is observed in a sam pIe with electron mobility larger than 104 cm 2 /Vs. 2 K. At low temperatures electrons and holes are captured by donors and acceptors, and no free carriers exist for absorbing the microwave field.
2]. hZ L - _ - 2m "Z x x iX + _h '"""' 'TrXi'Tr Z m ~ , Eo - Ei ' Z "Z n M - +mn-Z - 2m 2: Y Y 'TrXi'TriX ,. 46) The k . 45), which are shown on the left of Fig. 12. Here we have to note that the cyclotron resonance tells us of the existence of two hole bands, not triply degenerate bands at k = o. This is explained when we take the spin-orbit interaction into account as shown in the next section and the results are shown on the right of Fig. 12. 3]. The interaction Hamiltonian H so is given by 38 2.
At low temperatures 30 2. ~~ SampIe Fig. 3. Experimental setup for cyclotron resonance measurements. Microwave field generated by a klystron is guided to a cavity where a sampIe is inserted. 2 K. The carriers of the semiconductor sampIe are frozen out at low temperatures and electrons and holes are excited by light illumination guided into the cavity by an optical pipe and the light is pulsed by a chopper to provide the reference signal for a lock-in amplifier. The magnetic field is swept slowly and the microwave absorption is recorded as a function of the magnetic field the carriers in the semiconductor are frozen out and pulsed light is used to excite photo carriers (electrons and holes).
Basic Semiconductor Physics by Professor Chihiro Hamaguchi (auth.)