By Ingolf V. Hertel

ISBN-10: 3642543219

ISBN-13: 9783642543210

ISBN-10: 3642543227

ISBN-13: 9783642543227

This is the 1st quantity of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a entire presentation of this hugely effective department of recent physics as an imperative foundation for plenty of parts in physics and chemistry in addition to in cutting-edge bio- and material-sciences. It basically addresses complicated scholars (including PhD students), yet in a few chosen topic parts the reader is lead as much as the frontiers of current learn. hence even the lively scientist is addressed. This quantity 1 offers the canonical wisdom in atomic physics including fundamentals of contemporary spectroscopy. ranging from the basics of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in good dependent chapters step-by-step with an important phenomena, types and measuring thoughts. The emphasis is often at the test and its interpretation, whereas the required thought is brought from this attitude in a compact and sometimes a bit heuristic demeanour, effortless to stick to even for beginners.

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**Additional resources for Atoms, Molecules and Optical Physics 1: Atoms and Spectroscopy**

**Example text**

4 Quantum Systems in Strong Electromagnetic Fields . . 1 Temporal Evolution of the Density Matrix . . 5 Excitation with Continuous Wave (cw) Light . . . . 1 Relaxed Steady State . . . . . . . . 2 Saturation Broadening . . . . . . . . 3 Broad Band and Narrow Band Excitation . . . 4 Rate Equations . . . . . . . . . . 5 Continuous Excitation Without Relaxation . . 6 Continuous Excitation with Relaxation . . . 6 B LOCH Equations and Short Pulse Spectroscopy . .

5 K and (b) 1 K. 612 from the R IEMANN zeta function. At this critical temperature the much celebrated B OSE -E INSTEIN condensation (BEC) occurs (the pioneering work of C ORNELL, K ETTERLE, and W IEMAN was honoured with the N OBEL prize in C ORNELL et al. (2011)). In Fig. 10 we show two examples of the three statistical distributions – with T somewhat above the critical temperature Tc . 5 K and (b) 1 K. Clearly, in nature He gas would be described by the red curve corresponding to B OSE -E INSTEIN statistics, while the other two curves are just drawn for comparison.

53) l=√ 2σ N where σ is an average gas kinetic cross section. For typical elastic collisions between atoms and molecules it is on the order of 10−19 m2 . 46). Finally, we come back to the equipartition theorem. For molecules one has to add 1 to the number of degrees of freedom f for each accessible rotation, and 2 for each vibrational mode (for kinetic and potential energy). Thus, in a solid f = 6 per atom, in a diatomic molecular gas f = 7 per molecule (three translational coordinates, two rotational axes, one vibrational mode), while for linear and bent triatomic molecules we have f = 9 and 10, respectively – and so on.

### Atoms, Molecules and Optical Physics 1: Atoms and Spectroscopy by Ingolf V. Hertel

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