Download e-book for iPad: Applied Respiratory Physiology. With Special Reference to by J. F. Nunn

By J. F. Nunn

ISBN-10: 0407109404

ISBN-13: 9780407109407

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Chemical stimuli are effective at a lower 39 CONTROL OF BREATHING level (Widdicombe, 1964). The central co-ordination of the motor activity is little understood and the response is complex: (1) an inspiration, which takes into the lungs a volume of air sufficient for the expiratory activity; (2) build-up of pressure in the lungs by contraction of expiratory muscles against a closed glottis; (3) forceful expiration through narrowed airways with high linear velocity of gas flow which sweeps irritant material up towards the pharynx.

F. is altered by pathological factors, the pH is changed and ventilatory disturbances follow. Froman and Crampton-Smith (1966) described three patients who hyperventilated after intracranial haemorrhages. F. F. In a later communication, Froman (1966) reported correction of hyperventilation by intrathecal administration of 3 - 5 mEq. of bicarbonate. There are considerable difficulties in determining the precise location of the medullary chemoreceptors in relation to the surface of the medulla and also in defining the relative importance of the factors which govern the pH in their vicinity.

There has also been a recent revival of interest in the possibility of the existence of central venous chemoreceptors. Historical developments up to 1930 have been well reviewed by Perkins (1964). The Peripheral Chemoreceptors The carotid and aortic bodies have a metabolism which, in proportion to their weight, is considerably higher than that of the cerebral cortex. Their perfusion, however, is about ten times as great as their metabolic rate would appear to require, so that their arterial/venous blood gas content difference is extremely small (Daly, Lambertsen and Schweitzer, 1954).

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Applied Respiratory Physiology. With Special Reference to Anaesthesia by J. F. Nunn

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