By Siegfried Selberherr
The invention of semiconductor units is a reasonably fresh one, contemplating classical time scales in human existence. The bipolar transistor used to be introduced in 1947, and the MOS transistor, in a virtually usable demeanour, used to be established in 1960. From those beginnings the semiconductor gadget box has grown swiftly. the 1st built-in circuits, which contained quite a few units, grew to become commercially to be had within the early Sixties. instantly thereafter an evolution has taken position in order that this present day, under 25 years later, the manufacture of built-in circuits with over 400.000 units consistent with unmarried chip is feasible. Coincident with the expansion in semiconductor equipment improvement, the literature referring to semiconductor equipment and expertise concerns has actually exploded. within the final decade approximately 50.000 papers were released on those topics. the appearance of so known as Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) has definitely printed the necessity for a greater realizing of easy machine habit. The miniaturization of the one transistor, that is the foremost prerequisite for VLSI, approximately resulted in a breakdown of the classical versions of semiconductor devices.
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Extra resources for Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices
3 In order to obtain expressions for the carrier concentrations we have to integrate the density of states function multiplied with the corresponding carrier distribution function over the energy space. 00 n= f Pe(E). fn(E). 4-8) is Ee because no possible states for electrons do exist for energies below the conduction band edge. 4-9) is Ev. The distribution functions In (E) and fp (E) are Fermi functions. 4 Carrier Concentrations 25 E in and E Jp denote the Fermi energies for electrons and holes, respectively.
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66] Morgan, T. : Broadening of Impurity Bands in Heavily Doped Semiconductors. Physical Review. 139, No. lA, A343-A348 (1965). 67] Nag, B. : Diffusion Equation for Hot Electrons. Phys. Rev. 8, 3031-3036 (1974). 68] Nag, B. , Chakravarti, A. : Comments on the Generalized Einstein Relation for Semiconductors. Solid-State Electron. 18, 109-110 (1975). 69] Nag, B. : Parallel Diffusion Constant of Hot Electrons in Silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 550-551 (1976). : One-Dimensional Device Model of the npn Bipolar Transistor Including Heavy Doping Effects under Fermi Statistics.
Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices by Siegfried Selberherr