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By Hall E. H.

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976). 88. 67 volts. This is a 5v span, but it is outside the 0-to-5 volt range of the ADC. What is needed is both multiplication and scaling, which amplifies the signal and shifts it down to the ADC input range. 3 shows how an opamp can be configured to perform this function. We can calculate the output voltage of the opamp this way: Writing equations for V2: Vo - V2 Vr - V2 V2 + = Rf Rh RL As long as the opamp is operating in the linear range, V1 = V2. So we can rewrite the above equation like this: Vo - V1 Vr - V1 V1 + = Rf Rh RL If we solve this equation for Vo, we get the following: Rf Rf ˆ VrRf Vo = V1ÊË 1 + + RL Rh ¯ Rh Rf Rf ˆ VrRf V1ÊË 1+ + is the gain and is the offset RL Rh ¯ Rh Now we can apply this to the thermistor we’ve been using as an example.

This should result in an output code of 117 (decimal) or 75 (hex). 5v. 5v, the SAR resets bit 7 and sets bit 6 on the next clock. The ADC “chases” the input signal, Digital-to-Analog Converters 27 ending up with a final result of 12710 (7F16). 8v, corresponding to a code of 14310 (8F16). 48V. 8v). This example used a relatively fast input to show the effect; a slowly changing input has the same effect, but the error will be smaller. One way to reduce these errors is to place a low-pass filter ahead of the ADC.

High, the output of comparator B will go low. Of course, this scheme only works if the comparator outputs drive signals that never need to both be low at the same time. The resistor values must be large enough that the microcontroller can source enough current to drive the pin high. 5v when it is configured as an input. 17B shows how a single analog input can be used to read two switches. When both switches are open, the analog input will read 5v. 9v. 9v. Instead of switches, you could also use this technique to read the state of open-collector or open-drain digital signals.

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An Electron Theory of Electric Conduction in Metals by Hall E. H.

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