By G. Thomas
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Extra resources for Advances in Water Treatment and Environmental Management
For example we can mention (3, 4, 5, 6): – process using membranes: reverse osmosis, electrodyalisis, – ion exchange processes: permutation of nitrate ions by chloride and/or bicarbonate ions, – biological processes: heterotrophic with addition of inorganic carbon or by using hydrogen as a reducing reagent. Research started in 1978 led to the construction in 1983 of the first heterotrophic biological facility in the world applied on an industrial scale at Eragny-sur-Oise (France). 20 WATER TREATMENT Table 2: List of plant using the biological denitrification or the ion-exchange resins processes in France (non exhaustive list) Since 1983, several plants were built using the ion exchange or biological processes (see Table 2).
However, the search for the best cost ratio for this type of installation has led to propose the ion exchange method as an economically attractive alternative for small production rates, despite the ecological problem created by the discharge of salty effluents inherent in the process. PESTICIDES 1—REGULATION The word pesticides is a very loose one and gathers under one hat all the chemicals used for the destruction of organims. These products may be organic or inorganic. As far as organic molecules are concerned, they are of different structures, polarity, size, ionic form, volatility, etc.
The data can be used by the public to initiate prosecutions. Applications for new consents need to be advertised allowing objections to be raised to the consent conditions proposed. The Water Act 1989 set up the National Rivers Authority in England and Wales which now has the responsibility for the monitoring of discharges to surface waters, both those from the newly privatised water companies and industry (previously the treatment of wastewaters and the monitoring functions were carried out in England and Wales by the same organisation, the Water Authorities).
Advances in Water Treatment and Environmental Management by G. Thomas