By Hideshi Hattori, Makoto Misono, Yoshio Ono
Stable acid catalysts are already getting used in a variety of strategies in petroleum refining and are shortly being studied intensively in either educational and utilized fields for utilization in various reactions. sturdy base catalysts also are gaining expanding acceptance as strength catalysts. either acidic and simple catalysts are promising not just with admire to acid and base-catalysed reactions but additionally in fabrics sciences, corresponding to the construction of adsorbents, sensors, ceramics, and so forth. the current quantity comprises the textual content of 21 invited oral shows and fifty eight poster displays. the fabric covers quite a lot of points on acid-base catalysis, from quantum chemistry to industrialised procedures.
Read Online or Download Acid-Base Catalysis II: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid-Base Catalysis Ii, Sapporo, December 2-4, 1993 PDF
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Extra info for Acid-Base Catalysis II: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid-Base Catalysis Ii, Sapporo, December 2-4, 1993
2) [71. Inorganic Solid Supported Reagents as Acids and Bases 11 Comparative studies on various fluoride salts, solid supports, and organic solvents showed that KF' supported on alumina was the most convenient and efficient reagent for alkylation . KF-alumina was used in promoting alkylation of various types of compounds including alcohols, amides, and lactams and other nitrogen heterocycles involving uracil and xanthine derivatives; crown ethers could also be prepared in good yields (Table 2) [9-111.
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The strength and number of acid sites of HPA catalysts can be regulated by varying the chemical composition of HPA, the type of a carrier, the conditions of pre-treatment, etc. [ 4 ] . 3 Preparation of catalysts Such HPA as H3PW12040,H4SiW 0 and H3PMo12040are commercially available 12 40 as crystalline hydrates. HPA are usually obtained by acidifying an aqueous solution containing the salt of the heteroelement and the alkali metal molybdate or tungstate with subsequent isolation of the HPA by extracting with ether or by ion exchange [ 9 ] .
Acid-Base Catalysis II: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acid-Base Catalysis Ii, Sapporo, December 2-4, 1993 by Hideshi Hattori, Makoto Misono, Yoshio Ono