By Mohan Seneviratne
And trade use massive quantities of water, and in a few components of the area water is turning into a scarce commodity. This e-book is a 'best perform' handbook for water conservation for commercial and advertisement clients world-wide. It bargains a realistic account of the measures that are taken to re-educate commercial and advertisement clients within the innovations of water saving and re-use - anyplace on the earth.
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Extra info for A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities
6 Guidelines for salinity of irrigation water Class Comment Electrical conductivity S/cm Total dissolved solids mg/L 1 Low-salinity. Water can be used with most crops on most soils with little likelihood that a salinity problem will develop. 0–280 0–175 2 Medium-salinity. Water can be used if moderate leaching occurs. Plants with medium salt tolerance can be grown, usually without special control for salinity control. Special care needs to be taken when irrigating salt-sensitive crops with sprinkler.
Typical concentrations are less than 15 mg/L. − Salts of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (except for Cl , NO3 − , HCO3 − ) are sparingly soluble or insoluble in water. The solubility product Ksp of a substance shows the solubility of a given substance in water and is a constant. The higher the Ksp of a substance the greater its solubility in water. 6 Guidelines for salinity of irrigation water Class Comment Electrical conductivity S/cm Total dissolved solids mg/L 1 Low-salinity. Water can be used with most crops on most soils with little likelihood that a salinity problem will develop.
The 5-day test equates to 2/3 of the total BOD demand. Regulatory authorities require that BOD be below 10 mg/L for most reuse applications. 2 Chemical Oxygen Demand Chemical oxygen demand (COD) measures the total organic content that can be oxidised by potassium dichromate K2 Cr2 O7 in a sulphuric acid solution. Some organic substances such as aromatic hydrocarbons and pyridines are not oxidised by the COD test under any circumstances. Nitrogen compounds are also not oxidisable. Therefore this test may give falsely low readings where these substances are present.
A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities by Mohan Seneviratne