By Herbert W. Meyer
Written with the intention to be understood by means of the non-technical reader who's interested in the starting place of all of the electric and electromagnetic units that encompass him, this heritage additionally offers a handy compendium of data for these accustomed to and magnetic fields. The publication strikes alongside at a quick velocity, because it needs to whether it is to hide the big proliferation of advancements that experience happened over the last hundred years or so. the writer has struck a possible stability among the human part of his tale, introducing these biographical information that aid improve it, and its technical facet, explaining theories and "how issues paintings" the place this turns out applicable. He additionally achieves a stability in recounting the invention of easy medical rules and their technological applications—the myriad of units and innovations that make the most of power and knowledge in electromagnetic shape. certainly, one of many very important issues of the e-book is the shut and reciprocal courting among technology and expertise, among thought and perform. earlier than nearly 1840, the only clinical investigations of electric and magnetic phenomena have been mostly advert hoc and observational, and primarily no know-how in accordance with them existed. Afterwards, the clinical explorations grew to become extra programmatic and mathematical, and technical functions and innovations started to be produced in nice abundance. In go back, this expertise paid its debt to natural technology by way of delivering it with a chain of measuring tools and different examine units that allowed it to improve in parallel. even though this ebook experiences the early discoveries, from the magnetic lodestone and electrostatic amber of antiquity to Galvani's frog's legs and Franklin's kite-and-key of the 1700s, its significant emphasis is at the post-1840 advancements, because the following bankruptcy titles will be sure: Early Discoveries—Electrical Machines and Experiments with Static Electricity—Voltaic electrical energy, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetism, Galvanometers, Ampere, Biot and Savart, Ohm—Faraday and Henry—Direct present Dynamos and Motors—Improvements in Batteries, Electrostatic Machines, and different Older Devices—Electrical tools, legislation, and Definitions of Units—The electrical Telegraph—The Atlantic Cable—The Telephone—Electric Lighting—Alternating Currents—Electric Traction—Electromagnetic Waves, Radio, Facsimile, and Television—Microwaves, Radar, Radio Relay, Coaxial Cable, Computers—Plasmas, Masers, Lasers, gas Cells, Piezoelectric Crystals, Transistors—X-Rays, Radioactivity, Photoelectric impact, constitution of the Atom, Spectra.
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During the demonstration he noted the oscillations of a nearby compass needle, which corresponded with the opening and closing of the electrical circuit. Oersted spent some months with further experiments on this phenomenon, using stronger batteries in order to obtain greater deflections of the needle.
He announced also that these electricities repel similar charges and attract opposite kinds. IMPROVEMENTS IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES In 1746 Dr. Ingenhousz made a glass plate machine, but the same invention has also been attributed to Jesse Ramsden, although this was not until 1768. Benjamin Wilson about 1746 invented a collecter for an electrical machine somewhat resembling a comb. It consisted of a metallic rod with a number of fine points, SO mounted that the points were close to the revolving electrified surface.
Notwithstanding the great progress that h a d b e e n a c h i e v e d , tbere was net yet a single practical application of electricity, unless the lightning rod, Franklin’s electrostatic bells, or the whirligigs of Hamilton, Wilson, and Franklin could be considercd as such. 3 Voltaic Electricity, Electrochemistry, and Electromagnetism The closing decades of the eighteenth Century were years of unusual importance to electrical science. Up to that time a11 known electrical phenomena originated solely from electrical charges produced by friction, heat, or induction, and currents of electricity were of a transitory nature, resulting from the discharges of accumulated electrical charges.
A History of Electricity and Magnetism by Herbert W. Meyer